245 million people live in Indonesia, and the majority are Muslims. That said, the school system is still centrally steered by the MOE, which is responsible for curriculum development, the hiring of teachers, and national school examinations. Geography of Indonesia. They now stand at 20 percent of the overall government budget, as mandated by Indonesian law. The … In 2013, Indonesia ranked last in a landmark education report that measured literacy, test results, graduation rates and other key benchmarks in 50 nations. Even in the 1940s only about 4 percent of the Indonesian population could read. Subscribe to WENR, and discover other tools and publications. Credentials awarded include Sarjana Sains (degree in science), Sarjana Ilmu Sosial (degree in social sciences), or Sarjana Ilma Komputer (degree in computer science), and so on. [Source: Library of Congress *], The character of Indonesia’s education system reflects the country’s diverse religious heritage, its struggle for a national identity, and the challenge of resource allocation in a poor but developing archipelagic nation with a population that is young (median age 27.6 years) and growing (at an estimated annual rate of about 1.1 percent) in 2009. Indonesia has made great strides in terms of improving its education system during the Reformasi era of democratisation since 1998. [Source: Yenni Kwok, New York Times, June 15, 2014 ^+^]. Based on the evaluation by BAN-PT, programs are grouped into four categories: A (very good), B (good), C (satisfactory), or D (unsatisfactory). In general, the U.S. higher education system is attractive to Indonesian students for several reasons. [Source: VOA News, July 19, 2011], Indonesia has a twelve-year public and private education system (primary—grades one through six; junior high school—grades seven through nine; and senior high school—grades ten through twelve). It includes credentials called Sarjana at the undergraduate level (Sarjana Strata 1 – S1), graduate level (Sarjana Strata Dua – S2, commonly called Magister), and doctoral level (Sarjana Strata 3 – S3, commonly called Doktor). Public education budgets in Indonesia have long been neglected. The majority of elementary schools—more than 80 percent in 2010—are public, but private institutions play an important role in Indonesia’s school system, especially at the secondary level: 57 percent of schools at the lower-secondary level and 70 percent at the upper-secondary level were private in 2010, even though a majority of students were enrolled in public institutions. Medical schools are university faculties, close to two-thirds of which are part of private universities. Adult literacy rate 90.4 percent in 2009. Until the mid-2000s, Indonesia’s teachers were able to practice with merely a diploma in education. Indonesia’s cultural and regional diversity is as vast as the number of its islands. In Indonesia educations begins with six years of elementary school ( sekolah dasar, SD) followed by three years of middle school ( sekolah menengah pertama, SMP) followed by three years of high school ( sekolah menengah atas, SMA). These schools are required to incorporate parts of the national curriculum, namely Indonesian culture and language, while still teaching foreign curricula. It was composed of units of BPTRI and UVI; the name Universiteit Indonesia was later changed to Universitas Indonesia. However, significant disparities persist between the sexes and between urban and rural regions. Henny Supolo, head of Yayasan Cahaya Guru, a teachers’ nonprofit foundation, said that from 2007 to 2010, the organization provided training to 4,500 teachers from 2,000 schools, an overwhelming majority of whom were female teachers from public schools. Enrollments at upper-secondary private schools, on the other hand, decreased from 54 to 46 percent over the same time span, according to UIS data. Programs rated “D” are unaccredited (tidak terakreditasi). As a result, the number of school teachers at all levels of school education holding a Sarjana shot up from 37 percent in 2003 to 90 percent in 2016. In 1950 there were 10 institutions of higher learning with a total of about 6,500 students. Nowadays, it is not uncommon for Indonesian children to attend pesantrens, madrasahs (Islamic schools), or sekolahs Islam (modern Islamic schools). About 87 percent of Indonesia’s population is Sunni Muslim, making Indonesia the largest majority Muslim country in the world. As mentioned before, more than 50 percent of upper-secondary students in Indonesia study in the general academic track, but the government is seeking to drastically expand TVET and change enrollment ratios, so that 70 percent of students will study in the vocational track by 2020. The teaching style prioritizes rote memorization; promotion and graduation were, until recently, largely based on external national examinations (ujian nasional, or UN), typically in a multiple-choice format at the end of each school year. While the U.S. is still the second most popular destination for mobile Indonesian students, Indonesian enrollments in the U.S. have dropped significantly in recent years. Indonesia is already an exporter, not merely a consumer, of education, and it is thus a source of foreign income for the country. [Source: Library of Congress *], Indonesia’s institutions of higher education have experienced dramatic growth since independence. *. It lasts three years (grades 10 to 12) and is offered in different specialization streams in the general academic track. According to a ranking of education systems and worker productivity in Asia by Hong Kong-based Political and Economic Risk Consultancy Indonesia was last out of 12 countries. By 1961 the illiteracy rate had dropped to 40 percent from 95 percent in the 1940s and the number of universities increased from 4 to 25. In the final two years of the program, following a common general academic core curriculum in grade 10, students can specialize in languages (Indonesian, English, and other foreign languages), sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics), or social sciences (sociology, economy, and geography). The majority (60 percent) of Indonesian students pursue undergraduate degrees, while 14 percent enroll at the graduate level, 3 percent at the non-degree level, and 8 percent participated in OPT. Like its secondary school system, Indonesia’s higher education system is binary in nature. Lecturers often have other jobs outside the university to supplement their wages. The curriculum comprises basic subjects like religious education, national philosophy and civics, Indonesian, mathematics, science, social science, arts, and physical education. There are also informal education programs for students who cannot access the formal system or who dropped out. Some institutions may have an additional summer semester from June to August. However, the nationwide implementation of this new curriculum has been delayed since many schools and teachers are not yet ready for the changes, so that most schools still teach the old curriculum. Only about a third of students complete high school. While the number of Indonesian students in Malaysia has grown significantly over the past decade, despite fluctuations, it’s important to note that China is also surging in popularity as a study destination and may now attract more Indonesian students than Malaysia. Given the growing quality problems in the private sector, the MHRT in November 2018 announced that it would revoke the permits of some 1,000 private HEIs and gradually close and merge these institutions. There is a shortage of qualified math, science and English teachers. Indonesia is presently the 19th-largest sending country of international students to the United States. The academic year in the school systems generally lasts from July to June with a break in December and during the Muslim Eid Holiday.  The number of degree-seeking students reported by UIS increased from 5,704 in 2007 to 8,038 in 2016, before leveling off to 5,823 students in 2017. Government funding struggled to keep up with rising costs during this period, but by 2002, according to the World Bank, only 2 percent of those between the ages of 15 and 24 could not read, and by 2009, the adult literacy rate was 90.4 percent. [Source: Library of Congress *]. Only 40,737 students were enrolled in PhD programs throughout Indonesia in 2017. After independence in 1945, Indonesia constitutionally enshrined education as a right of all Indonesian citizens and sought to establish a more egalitarian and inclusive mass education system. Indonesia has a vast, rapidly growing, and highly diverse higher education landscape. The sovereign archipelago of Indonesia is on track to rapid urbanization; in fact, it is the largest country in Southeast Asia, the world’s third most populous democracy and is ranked 16th in GDP. As of the early 2000s, about 77 percent of the country's workforce had only graduated from elementary school. Although public education is mostly secular and Indonesia is formally a secular state, Islamic education is highly prominent in Indonesia’s large private education sector. Polytechnics, on the other hand, generally offer shorter, employment-geared, vocational diploma programs. The site has been created using Flash 4. The fact that there are no UIS statistics available for China prevents comparative analysis, but according to Chinese government data, there were 14,000 Indonesians studying in China in 2018 (up from 10,957 in 2011). Under the National Education Law, religious instruction in any one of the six official religions is required when requested by a student. The professional services firm PricewaterhouseCoopers projects that Indonesia will grow into the world’s fourth-largest economy by 2050. “Jilbab has become a symbol of Muslim girls, who are supposed to look different from non-Muslim girls.” Ms. Retno, the teachers’ union official, says nobody should be prohibited from wearing a head veil but no one should be forced or coerced to wear one either. Unlike state universities, private institutions have budgets that are almost entirely tuition-driven. The adult literacy rate ranges between 88.5 percent, according to a U.S. Government estimate for 2003, and 90.2 percent, according to a 2001 UNESCO estimate. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been authorized by the copyright owner. The final credential is called Dokter (Doctor of Medicine). Special education schools, for the physically and mentally disabled, numbered 1,686, with 73,322 students and 18,047 teachers. More than a third of Indonesian lecturers hold only a bachelor’s degree or less. This constitutes 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. There were about 3,000 academic programs slated for evaluation in 2009 alone. Indonesia is not a major study destination for international students. Life expectancy in Indonesia is 69.6 years. The tertiary gross enrollment ratio (GER) leaped by 20 percent between 2004 and 2017, despite being still low overall. Admissions criteria at Indonesian HEIs vary by institution, but the minimum entry requirement is the senior secondary school certificate (Ijazah SMA, MA or SMK). The research output of Indonesian universities is growing rapidly, but it’s still low compared with that of other emerging economies. Remuneration for primary- and secondary-school teachers, although low, compares favorably with that in other Asian countries such as Malaysia, India, and Thailand. S2 Magister programs are relatively new in Indonesia and were not established on a larger scale until the beginning of the 1990s, initially only at public institutions. ^+^, “Many parents like Ms. While Indonesia is formally a centralized “unitary republic,” it is effectively a quasi-federal state that concedes a considerable degree of autonomy to provinces like Aceh (Sumatra), the capital region of Jakarta (Java), the special region of Yogyakarta (Java), Papua, and West Papua. In Indonesia, girls are more likely than boys to drop out of school. It’s currently planned that students will also earn a series of formal vocational training certificates during the course of their studies, so that graduates and school dropouts alike can obtain qualifications of greater value in the labor market. ^+^, “The rise of Islamic practices in public schools, mirroring a rise in fundamentalism across the country, makes parents like Ms. This growth made Indonesia the third-largest sender of international students among ASEAN member states in 2017, behind only Vietnam (82,160) and Malaysia (64,187). The number of primary school students increased from 2 million in 1940 to 8 million in 1961 and the number of secondary school students increased from 25,500 to 700,000. The Indonesian government plans to extend compulsory education to grade 12, but these plans have not yet been implemented due to the associated costs and other reasons. That’s a higher percentage than in poorer ASEAN countries like Cambodia and Myanmar, but significantly below levels in Thailand, Malaysia, or Vietnam, which spent 4.1 percent (2013), 4.8 percent (2016), and 5.65 percent (2013), respectively, of their GDPs on education. According to UIS data, the number of Indonesian degree-seeking students enrolled overseas has grown by nearly 62 percent since 1998, reaching a high of 47,317 in 2016. In addition, there are graduate-level specialization programs (Specialis 1 and Specialis 2) in professional disciplines like medicine, as well as four levels of vocationally oriented diploma programs (DI to DIV). Some HEIs may use half-point scales with grades like AB, BC, or CD. The elementary GER in more remote island groups like Papua, Kalimantan, and Maluku, for instance, remained well below 50 percent in 2014. Existing shortcomings are amplified by the rapid growth of the system and the mushrooming of low-quality private providers absorbing the surging demand. It has also grown rapidly since the middle of the 20th century: The number of senior secondary schools doubled from 67,000 in 1974 to more than 146,000 in 2011, while the number of HEIs tripled within just 17 years—from 1,236 in 1995 to 3,815 in 2012. Programs are a minimum of three years, but usually take longer to complete. Professional schools offer “diploma” and “specialist” degrees, the latter graded either “SP1" or “SP2," depending on the level of advancement. Few universities offer doctoral programs. Outbound student flows from Indonesia are growing, but they are still relatively modest. It ranks 116th out of 189 on the UN’s Human Development Index, and its GDP per capita is less than half that of neighboring Malaysia. Students who complete junior secondary education and earn sufficiently high grades can enroll in either general academic senior secondary school (sekolah menengah atas, or SMA), or vocational upper-secondary schools (sekolah menengah kejuruan, or SMK, discussed below). “We noticed that almost all of them wore jilbab as uniform,” Ms. Supolo said, referring to what Indonesians call the Islamic head scarf. The country’s qualifications framework, established in 2012 to facilitate mobility between academic programs and the recognition of prior learning, illustrates the different subsystems and how they are related. Overall, the e-learning market in Indonesia has grown by 25 percent between 2010 and 2015. Of these institutions, 3 percent were public, with 57.1 percent of the student enrollment, and 97 percent were private, with 42.9 of the student enrollment. With a population of 264 million, Indonesia is known for being the 4th most populated country in the … [Source: Library of Congress *]. Like Australia, Malaysia is a popular choice for mobile Indonesian students because of its geographic proximity. Click here for a PDF file of the academic documents referred to below. “Wearing a jilbab should be voluntary,” said Ms. Retno, who wears one.” ^+^. Pupils who complete junior secondary education at religious schools under the purview of the Ministry of Religious Affairs receive the equivalent certificate of completion of madrasah tsanawiyah (MTs). Underscoring Indonesia’s tremendous economic potential, the country’s middle class is expected to double between 2013 and 2020. Already in 2010, public universities had capacity for merely 18 percent of Indonesia’s swelling number of high school graduates. In 2005 the central government launched a massive plan known in English as the School Operation Fund that pumped billions of rupiah directly into schools. The country spent 3.6 percent of its GDP on education in 2015, only marginally more than in 2008 when it spent 3.5 percent. A central goal of the national education system is not merely to impart secular wisdom about the world but also to instruct children in the principles of participation in the modern nation-state, its bureaucracies, and its moral and ideological foundations. Some programs may incorporate internships and other practical training components. Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, Compton’s Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Global Viewpoint (Christian Science Monitor), Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, and various books, websites and other publications. With over 50 million students and 2.6 million teachers in more than 250,000 schools, it is the third largest education system in the Asia region and the fourth largest in the world (behind only China, India and the United States). Indonesia is one of Australia's closest neighbours. Questions or comments, e-mail email@example.com, Education, Health, Energy, Transportation - Education in Indonesia. *, Some say Indonesia has one of the worst education systems in the world. Joint Statement by Prime Minister Morrison and President Widodo – February 2020 Leaders' Meeting; Transcript of joint statements by Prime Minister Morrison and President Widodo – 10 February 2020 The pupil-to-teacher ratio has dropped from 20 to 1 to 16 to 1 in elementary education between 2004 and 2017, even though this ratio has remained flat if not decreased at higher levels of schooling (as per data from the UNESCO Institute of Statistics – UIS). Introduces Flash animation interactive resource for the study of Indonesia in Arts, English and Studies of Society and the Environment, years 3-9. While Islamic education was long regarded as second rate, the rise of Islamic conservatism in Indonesia has led to an increase in Islamic education in public school curricula in recent years. It signed a free trade agreement with Australia that lays the groundwork for Australian universities like the University of Melbourne and the University of Queensland to establish branch campuses in Indonesia. In many remote areas of the Outer Islands, in particular, there is a severe shortage of qualified teachers, and some villages have school buildings but no teachers, books, or supplies. The top three destination countries for Indonesian degree-seeking students enrolled overseas are Australia, the U.S., and Malaysia. Also, increasing tuition costs in the U.S. and the recent depreciation of the Indonesian rupiah against the U.S. dollar make it more costly for Indonesians to study Stateside. Despite being the world’s fourth-largest country in terms of population, Indonesia was only the 22nd-largest sender of international students worldwide in 2017, making up less than 1 percent of the more than 5 million students studying abroad that year. They made Indonesians obey laws they did not like, and after many years- in Aug 17, 1945- they declared independence from the Netherlands. It is one of … The Indonesian school system is immense and diverse. The majority of vocational schools specialize in the fields of technology and industry (86 percent) and business and management (76 percent). They typically require the completion of 144 to 150 credit units of course work and a thesis. Hindu and Buddhist students, who don’t have their own religious teachers in the school, read their religious texts while sitting in the same rooms as their Muslim classmates reciting the Koran.”, Reasons for the Rise of Islamism in Indonesian Public Schools, Yenni Kwok wrote in the New York Times, ““The rise in such practices has affected teachers too. There are some 1,634 institutions of higher education, including the University of Indonesia in Jakarta, founded by the Dutch in the 1930s, and Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta, founded by Indonesians in 1946. [Source: Angel Rabasa, Senior Policy Analyst, Rand Corporation, September 12, 2005 ^|^]. The MHRT recently announced that the test will be given entirely in computer format beginning in 2019. Admission usually requires an S1 degree in a related discipline with a minimum GPA of 2.5 (on a 4-point scale), but entrance examinations and demonstrated English language abilities may also be required. It is important for the government to support the growth of this group in all fronts. Christian students sit together in one room, within hearing of the Koranic recital, to read the Bible, the teacher said. The admissions test includes general subjects (mathematics, Indonesian, English), as well as subjects related to the intended area of concentration (for example, science subjects for STEM fields). These employment-geared programs can take from one year (D1) to four years of study (D4) to complete; the numbers 1 to 4 correspond to both the level of complexity and the nominal length of study (although programs may also be completed in more or less time). When the Dutch returned in force, BPTRI dispersed its various schools to other parts of Java. This trend has coincided with a 611 percent increase in Indonesian degree students studying in Saudi Arabia, from 254 in 2010 to 1,806 in 2017. Lies said. While Vietnam and Malaysia, the two largest senders in the ASEAN, have outbound mobility ratios of 3.56 and 5.14 percent, only 0.57 percent of Indonesia’s tertiary students are studying abroad, the second-lowest percentage among all ASEAN member states after the Philippines. The figure plummeted afterwards in part because parents needed their children to help bring in money. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. There were 10,646 Indonesian degree students in the country in 2016 compared with 10,148 in 2004. Indonesia Facts . These quality considerations notwithstanding, enrollments in private institutions at the elementary level increased from 16 percent to 22 percent between 2004 and 2017. It consists of five major … The country is so expansive in its area covered that it has three time zones. Academies are dedicated to vocational education at the undergraduate level and can be public or private. The government’s Household Health Survey estimated an illiteracy rate of 7 percent, with more females (10 percent) than males being illiterate (4 percent) and with higher rates in rural (10 percent) than in urban areas (4 percent; Badan Pusat Statistik, 2007b). Student–teacher ratios also compare satisfactorily with those in many Asian nations: They were 23.4 to 1 and 18.8 to 1, respectively, for primary and secondary schools in 2004; that same year, the overall averages for Asia-Pacific countries were 22 to 1 and 18 to 1, respectively. In this effort the government has received considerable support from the World Bank, United Nation agencies, foreign governments, and private foundations. •Indonesia Mengajar. Almost the study hours is spent at the class. After completing the program, students sit for national examinations in both the general education subjects and the vocational subjects. Education in Indonesia falls under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture (Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan or Kemdikbud) and the Ministry of Religious Affairs (Kementerian Agama or Kemenag). The drop out rate among poor teenagers doubled to 25 percent after the Asian economic crisis. But … The colonial government limited education to an amount needed to fill positions in the civil service and society of the time. This includes support to improve quality of education and skills of the population and promoting job-creating growth and ample access to social protection….”. A common grading scale variation is shown below. Most religious schools emphasize Islamic values and thought. The government has promoted education at all levels. Graduates receive the Ijazah SMK and a certificate of competency in their vocational specialization. Students that receive a PISA score of level 1 are considered functionally illiterate as they can, for example, read a text but cannot answer questions related to it.”.
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