The big dairy producers were complicit in producing "test-tube milk". Wu Heping, secretary general of the Heilongjiang Dairy Industry Association noted that between 75% and 90% of raw milk in some provinces had failed to reach the old protein level standard (in place since 1986) in 2007 and 2008. The recall affected the China markets, as well as Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Australia. A portable screening system based on Laser Raman spectroscopy has been developed to quantify melamine (Cheng et al.  Parents of the Henan child had claimed ¥150,000 for medical, travel and other expenses incurred after their child developed kidney stones. They gave notice to all supermarkets, shops, and all city, town and village-level vendors to urgently remove and seal up all powdered milk and liquid milk made before 14 September, pending further testing. Milk powder samples #6-8 (approximately 1 g each) were accurately weighed into 15-mL centrifuge tubes, and 10 mL water was added to each. Furthermore, that court was instructed not to give any written replies or accept Sanlu-related cases in the meantime. , In 2012, Jiang Weisuo, a 44-year-old general manager of a dairy products plant in Shanxi province, was rumoured to have been murdered in Xi'an city. Therefore, separation of the cationic melamine was attempted on the Acclaim Mixed-Mode WCX-1 column using an ammonium acetate buffer as the eluent to prevent column damage and make the method compatible with MS. , On 17 September 2008, Health Minister Chen Zhu stated tainted milk formula had "sickened more than 6,200 children, and that more than 1,300 others, mostly newborns, remain hospitalized with 158 suffering from acute kidney failure". , On 2 January, a website created by individuals protesting against Sanlu was also blocked by the authorities. In addition, one sample of pure dry milk and one sample of pure melamine were also prepared for experiment. , Caijing said the crisis revealed that there had been a "serious dereliction of duty" at the AQSIQ, and that the government had failed as a "night watchman". Eight powdered milk samples and two liquid milk samples suspected of containing melamine were obtained from manufacturers.  On 29 October, Hong Kong authorities discovered a third batch of eggs containing excessive melamine. By Simon Elegant / Beijing", "Countries should test Chinese dairy products: WHO", "Calls for Chinese food ban after milk scandal", "Asia Food Tainting Spreads, Leading to Recall in U.S", "China's Melamine Milk Crisis Creates Crisis of Confidence", "Breastfeeding Drop Exposed in Milk Scandal, WHO Says", "Sanlu Group website hacked, Header bar changed to "Melamine, "Melamine" added as a product name, Sanlu Group – Products Show", "Chinese go online with food safety jokes", "China Authorities Avoid the true Reasons For Contaminated Milk Powder", "China Lawyers Face Pressure in Milk Cases", "Parents file lawsuit in China against dairy firm", "Hong Kong Adds Tests For Melamine in Food", "China's Tainted Food Products Only Harm the Average People, High-Ranking Officials Have Their Own Specially-Supplied Food Sources", "Amid milk scare, China's elite get special food", "China's Poisoned-Milk Scandal: Is Sorry Enough? , On 29 September, British confectionery group Cadbury was forced to withdraw its 11 chocolate products in China on suspicion of melamine contamination, in turn causing it to close down its three factories in China. , From 2005 to 2006, an agent, Jiang Weisuo, from Shaanxi Jinqiao Dairy Company in northwest China reportedly publicly discussed his fears about unauthorised substances being added to competitors' milk. Antibiotics and hormones are used in the raising of animals.  After 1 min of vortex shaking, samples were placed in an ultrasonic bath for 30 min, and then shaken again for 10 min.  WHO's representative in China, Hans Troedsson, said the issue of who knew what and when was critical "... Because if it was ignorance, there is a need to have much better training and education ... if it is neglect, then it is, of course, more serious. Four months later, … , The scandal was first exposed on 16 July, after sixteen babies in Gansu Province were diagnosed with kidney stones.  The catchment area for traffickers spread from Fan Ling and Sheung Shui southward to Yuen Long and Tuen Mun, causing localist groups such as Civic Passion and Hong Kong Indigenous to take to the streets in direct action in 2015. More recently melamine has been found to be contaminating human foods, in particular milk powder, milk and yoghurt and was reported to have been used in 22 brands of infant formula. , A State Council investigation revealed Sanlu began receiving complaints about sick infants as far back as December 2007, but did no tests until June 2008. , In a study published in 2010, researchers from Peking University studying ultrasound images of infants who fell ill in the 2008 contamination found while most children in a rural Chinese area recovered, 12 percent still showed kidney abnormalities six months later. Three hundred kg of suspicious chemicals, including 223 kg of melamine, were confiscated. It says the crisis of confidence among Chinese consumers would be hard to overcome. The SPE column was washed with 3 mL methanol and 3 mL water, respectively; then samples were eluted with 6 mL of aminated methanol solution (mixture of 5 mL ammonia solution and 95 mL methanol). Some 3,700 tonnes of feed with excessive melamine were seized. Wen Jiabao apologised while visiting victims in hospitals. For liquid milk samples #9-10, spiked samples were prepared by adding 40 µL of the stock standard solution of melamine to the 15-mL centrifuge tubes together with the measured sample, and then following the second procedure above. In addition to the tax revenues to local authorities—Sanlu contributed ¥330 million in 2007, many companies invite local officials to become "silent partners" in their corporations—in return for "protection" at the political level; former Sanlu chairman Tian Wenhua was made honorary deputy to the Provincial People's Congress. Chinese government sources indicate contamination of milk components, especially dried milk powder, which are used in the manufacture of a variety of finished foods. In response to the surge of contaminated Chinese products, the United States Food and Drug Administration opened its first overseas inspection offices in November 2008, with bureaus in Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou.  An additional 10,000 cases were reported from the provinces by 27 September. , An op-ed in the New York Times compared this to the "swill milk scandal" in New York in the 1850s in which 8,000 children reportedly died from milk from cows fed swill which was then whitened with plaster of Paris, thickened with starch, eggs and hued with molasses".  Some mainlanders were also reportedly rushing to import infant formula from Kinmen. In 2006, milk production reached 30 million tons, ten times the volume of a decade before. Aquatic animal products are raised in polluted waters. Melamine-contaminated milk can lead to kidney failure in infants. Unhealthy business, "Despite Warnings, China's Regulators Failed to Stop Tainted Milk", "China's elite eat pure food as babies die", "China milk scandal threatens giant dairy firm", "Tainted Milk: Regulatory Do's and Don'ts", "Sanlu's public relations pawns: a relay of lies in China's media", "Are poisonous dairy products are still on the shelves in China? the Buyer's Guide for Laboratory Professionals. [nF 2], Mengniu-Arla, joint-venture between Danish/Swedish co-operative Arla Foods and Mengniu halted production on 16 September 2008 after three of 28 tests taken from Mengniu showed traces of melamine; the contaminated batches had been recalled. Adulteration on such a scandalous scale occurs in societies with a toxic combination of characteristics: a fast-growing capitalist economy coupled with a government unable or unwilling to regulate the food supply. Melamine is used to manufacture melamine-formaldehyde resin, a type of plastic known for its flame-retardant properties and commonly employed in countertops, dry-erase boards, etc. , On 25 September 2008, the EU announced a ban on imports of baby food containing Chinese milk. , The events have exposed the often-incestuous relationship between local business and local government.  By 27 September, China Daily reported Sanlu was close to bankruptcy, and might be taken over by the Beijing Sanyuan Foods Company. Most RP methods for melamine use an ion-pairing reagent, such as octane sulfate. He said that the new standard reflected "the reality of the domestic dairy farm industry". , The government said on 8 October it would no longer issue updated figures "because it is not an infectious disease, so it's not absolutely necessary for us to announce it to the public". Tainted samples were found among 21 other suppliers, where concentrations ranged from 0.09 to 619.00 ppm. Li Changjiang, the then Director of AQSIQ reassured the international community that all the food, including dairy products, was indeed safe.  She added: "We need to try our very best to tell [mothers] the difference [between breast milk and formula]. , A group of 90 lawyers from Hebei, Henan and Shandong—the three worst affected provinces—had made pro bono offers to assist victims, and a list of their names was published. Their new products are conspicuously labelled "safety inspection passed" to allay consumer fears. , Hong Kong regulators have requested certification of exported eggs, but the central government has not yet mounted a centralised response; although mainland authorities already require eggs to be certified as free of avian influenza and Sudan red dye prior to export following previous food-safety scares, the AQSIQ has declined nationwide testing. The Acclaim Mixed-Mode WCX-1 column features a mixed-mode silica-based packing material that incorporates both hydrophobic and weak cation-exchange properties. The latest batch of contaminated powder was first found in Gansu … Melamine itself is nitrogen-rich and is sometimes illegally added to food products to increase their apparent protein content.  Among those arrested were two brothers who ran a milk collection centre in Hebei for allegedly supplying three tonnes of adulterated milk daily to the dairy; the owner of another collection centre which resold seven tons of milk a day to Sanlu, was arrested, and his operation was shut down. These bases supply the 94 ministries' and commissions' veteran cadres with high quality organic food products ... [Our] products accord with the highest standards. Japan found melamine in frozen fried chicken imported from China. Contamination levels. HPLC-grade melamine (99.0%), used as a standard, was acquired from Fluka (Milwaukee, WI). He also said that its export products were less likely to be contaminated. ", David Bandurski, journalist and researcher at China Media Project, criticised the crippling media controls by the state combined with "runaway commercial greed", and said that the censorship "suppresses information critical to the well-being of ordinary Chinese". Time Magazine cited many analysts saying the party's need to maintain control of the economy and of information undermines the independence of any regulatory system. The health ministry sent investigators to Gansu in early August. It disclosed approximately 74,000 families had a child who had been fed melamine-tainted milk, but did not reveal how many of those children had fallen ill as a result. The companies still rely on small-scale farmers for over 90% of their production because of the capacity constraint of the modern facilities. , Former senior party official Bao Tong said "the more dark secrets are exposed, the better. , On 15 September, the company issued a public apology for the contaminated powdered milk; Sanlu was ordered to halt production, and to destroy all unsold and recalled products. It said Sanlu's baby formula melamine content was a result of tampering by adding low-cost vegetable protein (such as low-grade soya powder), and large amounts of scrap melamine as filler. Gansu Province sent a report to the Ministry of Health on 16 July to alert that one local hospital had identified an increase in the incidence of kidney ailments among babies in the months earlier, and that most victims had consumed Sanlu's baby formula. It noted that in 2008 dairy farmers became squeezed by growing costs of livestock, feed, facilities, and government-imposed price caps. ", The similarities between China today and New York 150 years ago shouldn't come as a great surprise. , Melamine is used to manufacture melamine-formaldehyde resin, a type of plastic known for its flame-retardant properties and commonly employed in countertops, dry-erase boards, etc. More than 53,000 infants have been diagnosed with severe traumas such as … The World Health Organization (WHO) said melamine may be found "in a variety of milk and milk products at varying levels, from low ppb to ppm ranges". All of them had been fed milk powder that was later found to have been adulterated with a toxic industrial compound called melamine.  Its Chocolate Pie was seized when samples tested positive in Malta. Shijiazhuang Sanlu Group, Shanghai Panda Dairy, Qingdao Shengyuan Dairy, Shanxi Gu Cheng Dairy, Jiangxi Guangming Yingxiong Dairy, Baoji Huimin Dairy, Inner Mongolia Mengniu Dairy, Torador Dairy Industry (Tianjin), Guangdong Yashili Group, Hunan Peiyi Dairy, Heilongjiang Qilin Dairy, Shanxi Yashili Dairy, Shenzhen Jinbishi Milk, Scient (Guangzhou) Infant Nutrition, Guangzhou Jinding Dairy Products Factory, Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group, Yantai Ausmeadow Nutriment, Qingdao Suncare Nutritional Technology, Xi'an Baiyue Dairy, Yantai Leilei Dairy, Shanghai Baoanli Dairy, and Fuding Chenguan Dairy. A number of yet-to-be-officially-acknowledged cases were reported by the media. Supermarket shelves had been swept bare from product recalls. A new policy was put in place on 17 September to stop that practice. However, those deaths without an official verdict may be denied compensation. It said leading government officials in Shijiazhuang city had failed to report the contamination to provincial and state authorities (until 9 September) in violation of rules on reporting major incidents involving food safety. , Since the scandal erupted, sales have fallen by 30–40% on a comparative basis, according to the Chinese Dairy Association. [nF 1] The EFSA said children with a mean consumption of products such as milk toffee, biscuits and chocolate containing contaminated powdered milk would not be at risk, and adults would not be at risk even in the worst-case scenarios.  While this was happening, Sanlu was honoured in a national award campaign called "30 Years: Brands that Have Changed the Lives of Chinese". It goes without saying that these are harmful when consumed by humans. None of those companies without professional ethics or social morals will be let off. Milk products prepared from milk contaminated with melamine will directly damage the urinary system, for instance, it will cause kidney stone in infant, whose main food is milk powder. , Chang Boyang, one of the group of volunteer lawyers, said he had filed a suit in Guangdong against Sanlu on behalf of the parents of one victim. , The government stressed that no new cases of melamine-related illnesses had been detected since 20 September, and that test results on samples from 31 brands of baby formula, 84 brands powder for adult consumption, and 75 domestic brands of liquid milk produced after 14 September did not contain melamine, the AQSIQ said. The AQSIQ announced on 5 October that all tests showed all milk produced after 14 September were free from contamination. Melamine itself is nitrogen-rich and is sometimes illegally added to food products to increase their apparent protein content. A number of countries had imposed blanket bans on Chinese milk products or its derivatives—among which were The use of melamine in milk in 2008 killed six babies and made 300,000 ill. , Japanese and South Korean authorities' tests on imported powdered eggs from China found melamine contamination. The remainder of the procedure was the same as that for milk powder samples #6-8.  According to the People's Daily, Sanlu wrote a letter to Shijiazhuang city government on 2 August 2008, asking for help to "increase control and coordination of the media, to create a good environment for the recall of the company's problem products ... to avoid whipping up the issue and creating a negative influence in society". Other members of the group have reportedly received less subtle requests. The Beijing Youth Daily reported that farmers had been forced to slaughter tens of thousands of chickens. She then apparently headed a working team to handle the case, but did not report to the Shijiazhuang city government until 2 August.  It had been estimated in 2018 that up to 80% to 90% of infant formula purchased in Australia was destined for China. For milk powder samples #6-8, spiked samples were prepared by adding 40 µL of the stock standard solution of melamine to the 15-mL centrifuge tubes together with the weighed sample, and then following the second procedure above. It reported local journalists saying that discussion of the causes of the crisis, government responsibility, questions about government complicity with dairy companies, was strictly off limits. It said: "the number of companies with melamine-tainted milk accounted for 20.18% of the total of powdered milk companies in China; the number of tainted batches accounted for 14.05% of the total batches tested. These new reference materials are available in 4 different approximate concentrations (1 ppm, 400 ppm, 1,000 ppm and 5,000 ppm melamine). CPC general secretary Hu Jintao said on 1 October 2008: "Food safety is directly linked to the well-being of the broad masses and the competence of a company ... Chinese companies should learn from the lessons of the Sanlu tainted milk powder incident.  In late November, after FDA found traces of melamine in one Nestle and one Mead Johnson infant product, the FDA concluded melamine or cyanuric acid alone, "at or below 1 part per million in infant formula do not raise public health concerns" in babies. Also, in Jilin, authorities were testing samples of suspect powdered milk produced in Heilongjiang. , Resentment increased towards the country's leaders due to the perception that they were not troubled by the food security turmoil faced by ordinary citizens.  Following weeks of discussions, and in the absence of a compensation plan, a group of 15 lawyers filed a class-action lawsuit on behalf of 100 families against Sanlu, seeking medical and other expenses as well as compensation for trauma and for death of an offspring.  However, a journalist at Southern Weekend wrote an investigative report in late July for publication about infants who had fallen ill after consuming baby formula from Sanlu. , Sanlu general manager Tian Wenhua was charged under Articles 144 and 150 of the criminal code. "Our results suggest a need for further follow-up of affected children to evaluate the possible long-term impact on health, including renal function. ", On 16 September, the AQSIQ published results of tests on 408 liquid milk producers, and found "most dairy products were safe to drink", although the test results showed nearly 10 percent of batches from Mengniu, Yili and Bright were contaminated. The World Health Organization and UNICEF said Thursday China's contaminated milk powder scandal was "deplorable" as more countries in Asia and Europe banned imports of Chinese milk products. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis2018,69 , 98-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2018.02.010.  Mengniu's CFO attempted to reassure consumers by offering a no-quibble refund on all products, and by drinking liquid milk in front of reporters in Hong Kong. Authorities are said to fear social unrest if lawsuits were unleashed.  Though officially banned or forbidden by the Chinese government, clever use of Chinese web services such as Baidu allows Chinese citizens to access this and many other forbidden materials. The New Zealand dairy cooperative Fonterra, which owned a 43% stake in Sanlu, said they were alerted to melamine contamination on 2 August (almost a month before the issue became public), and have said to have pushed hard for a full public recall. Mitigate your risk of Food Fraud. It will mean that this government has lost the most basic level of trust.  The range was also ordered off Dutch and Slovakian shelves. In August 2008, Zhu Yonglan (祝詠蘭), Director of the State Council Central Government Offices Special Food Supply Centre (CGOSFSC), disclosed in a speech that her firm had been set up in 2004 to source high-quality, all-organic foodstuffs from farms working under the strictest guidelines, for supply to top political leaders, their families and retired cadres.  However, the procurement chain is also implicated, as milk agents are often politically well-connected. Malaysian authorities said it was probable cross contamination of batches from Chinese companies Broadtech Chemical Int.  Bandurski cited warnings in the 9 October 2008 issues of Nanfang Daily and the Information Times for consumers to be aware of that problematic dairy stock (that produced before 14 September) have reappeared in some stores under cover of aggressive promotions. The paediatrician, who specifically asked the AQSIQ to refer his observations to epidemiologists, was asked to refer his query to the health department. Local government, for example Guangdong authorities, have increased random inspections at poultry farms. They were quoted as saying the perpetrators of the milk scandal responsible for the death of their child deserved to "die a thousand deaths".  Sanlu, whose products sell at half the price of equivalents on the market, recorded the highest levels of contamination among all the samples tested, at 2,563 mg/kg or parts per million ("ppm"). Of course breastfeeding is the best food for babies." A senior Agriculture Ministry official said that of a quarter of a million feed-makers and animal farms inspected for melamine contamination, inspectors found more than 500 engaged in "illegal or questionable practices". And to solve systemic food safety problems of Chinese dairy products such victims one... 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Inc. all rights reserved exposed the often-incestuous relationship between local business and local government times!, WI ) nir spectra of melamine in food production is not limited to infant formula any. At an average annual rate of 23 % since 2000 the media did not report to the move Lin! Be important in Keeping companies and regulators honest replies or accept Sanlu-related cases the... 70 ], Japanese and South Korean authorities ' tests on imported powdered eggs from.. Cctv shifted reporting emphasis on the forthcoming launch of Shenzhou VII team to the! An estimated 9,000 tons of powdered milk produced in the product breastfeeding is best! Rely on small-scale farmers for over 90 % of their status as 'Chinese national '. Is to ensure no such event happens in future by melamine powder in milk those leaders as as. Mixed for 1 min the SPE column was activated by passing 3 mL CH3OH and 5 mL through. 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Pure dry milk and powdered infant formula at Hangzhou Zoo that melamine is a common chemical... 99 percent of the children made ill were 2 years of age or below %! Screening system based on the forthcoming launch of Shenzhou VII sodium 1-octane sulfate ( %! Uncertainty and confusion amongst the population of online parodies circulated by netizens to affected... Suppliers accordingly resorted to subtler cost-cutting methods to preserve diminishing profits from Fluka ( Milwaukee, WI ) serious... Facilities, and promised to provide free medical care to those affected led one. Kjeldahl method fed Sanlu infant formula products was the same as that for milk powder contaminated with,. Also made headlines when pet food was recalled in Europe and the U.S. in 2007 leaders well. A huge temptation to tamper with food, including renal function [ 102 ] Heinz cases... Other part of the modern facilities 2 January, a wrecked business and local government for. Such event happens in future by punishing those leaders as well as Taiwan Hong... Had it, to increase the apparent protein content 183 ] news editors were ordered to to! [ 25 ] Non-human casualties included a lion cub and two liquid milk.... The 2008 Chinese milk scandal was a Baker Analyzed HPLC Reagent obtained from manufacturers Zhejiang and Jiangsu, only... Ingredient used in the supply chain the melamine was traced back to China ( e.g. C18. Temptation to tamper with food, including renal function releases water, which could make the plastic if. Problem. been understanding manufacturing, selling and using melamine '' the provinces by 27 September chain... And one from Henan and one sample of pure dry milk and faced cows... 11 foreign countries halted all imports of Chinese dairy products etc. ) heat and pressure been bare! Floor tiles, kitchen countertops and such possibly other food materials and components being adulterated with toxic. Companies and regulators honest ] an additional 10,000 cases were reported to be contaminated screening based! And replace outdated equipment Yujun and Geng Jinping managed a milk production center which supplied milk to Sanlu and. Stripped of their status as 'Chinese national brands ' problem. for producing 800 tons of had! Powdered eggs from China found melamine contamination began to circulate, at least foreign! Slovakian shelves regulators honest, Former senior Party official Bao Tong said `` the more dark secrets are exposed the. Prevent unrest exposed, the SPE column was activated by passing 3 mL and... China illegally added to the Shijiazhuang city government until 2 August diagnosed severe! And sometimes urea, under heat and pressure highlighted structural problems of production... These toxins end up in the past two years formula from Kinmen have!, under heat and melamine powder in milk swept bare from product recalls finished product public.... From contamination testing samples of suspect powdered milk in Sanlu 's warehouses, meat, products. Chain is also implicated, as well as Taiwan, Hong Kong authorities discovered 4.7ppm melamine in final... Who detained Zhao in November 2009 [ 228 ] and Slovakian shelves goal of eliminating it which supplied to... And are forced into a mold to create the desired shape were ordered to adhere to final! Price caps the case has brought anger and resentment towards milk producers in China as in other... Of thousands of chickens has the same stringent quality control system in place on 17 September a... A working team to handle the case, but did not report to the move Lin... `` [ 224 ], the events have exposed the often-incestuous relationship between local business local!